Excel spreadsheets are often used to crunch numbers. To do this, one must understand the basics of formulas. Whether calculating sums or averages, these shortcuts will help users be more efficient in formula creation and use.
WINDOWS
=

Start a formula

Alt + =

Insert the AutoSum formula

Shift + F3

Display the Insert Function dialog box

Ctrl + a

Display Formula Window after typing formula name

Ctrl + Shift + a

Insert Arguments in formula after typing formula name

Shift + F3

Insert a function into a formula

Ctrl + Shift + Enter

Enter a formula as an array formula

F4

After typing cell reference (e.g. =E3) makes reference absolute (=$E$4)

F9

Calculate all worksheets in all open workbooks

Shift + F9

Calculate the active worksheet

Ctrl + Alt + F9

Calculate all worksheets in all open workbooks, regardless of whether they have changed since the last calculation

Ctrl + Alt + Shift + F9

Recheck dependent formulas, and then calculates all cells in all open workbooks, including cells not marked as needing to be calculated

Ctrl + Shift + u

Toggle expand or collapse formula bar

Ctrl + `

Toggle Show formula in cell instead of values

Names
Ctrl + F3

Define a name or dialog

Ctrl + Shift + F3

Create names from row and column labels

F3

Paste a defined name into a formula

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